An Annotation of Literary, Historic, and Artistic References
in Alan Moore's Graphic Novel, V For Vendetta.
Madelyn Boudreaux,
April 27, 1994

Last Revised: August 13, 2004
Table of Contents
  • Introduction
  • Book 1 <- You are here
  • Book 2
  • Book 3
  • Sources and Credits
  • Quotes and fanmail
  • Part 2 of 5

    Copyright 1994-present, Madelyn Boudreaux.

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    7, -, - Europe After the Reign (title)

    The title of the first book refers to the painting "Europe After the Rains" by Max Ernst, and holds within it implications of climatic upheavals of the nuclear near-miss. "After the reign" certainly refers to the dissolution of the royalty with a certain ominous ring, just as the painting's title implies a great heaviness over the entire continent. The title page image, of a single gloved hand (which surely indicates cold weather) placing something heavy and black on the surface below, adds to the ominous nature.

    The painting, entitled "L'Europe apres la pluie," was created in 1940-42. It is described as "a funereal scene full of waste and putrefaction, peopled only by bestial creatures that wander around in solitude," (pg. 44-45) Ernst had been creating similar works which implied "the ruined, the fossilised and the lifeless; surfaces seem to be decayed, eaten away by acid and pierced by innumerable holes like the surface of a sponge," (pg. 44) for some time before WWII (pg. 94) but it was after his "premonition of war was translated into reality" that he fled to America. There, haunted by the memories of Europe torn apart, he created the composition also called "Europa nach dem Regen," which translates as Europe after the Rain or Europe after the Flood (pg. 44).

    Ernst was born in 1891 in Bruhl, south of Cologne, on the banks of the Rhine (pg 29). His paintings often describe "a world in which the history of mankind has been wholly erased by a cataclysmic event in the iniverse...or by the conscious act of revolution which has destroyed everything." (p.8). In 1925, his best friend Pual Eluard wrote about Ernst's mental attitude, "which sought to destroy all culture that was inherited or not the result of personal experience, as if it were a sort of sclerosis in Western society: 'There cannot be total revolution but only permanent revolution. Like love, it is the fundamental joy of life.'" (footnote pg. 8). Ernst participated in a Dada exhibitions where observers destroyed his art and viewed pieces nailed to walls and thrown on the ground. In order to reach the gallery of the event, viewers passed through the lavatory of a beer house where a young girl dressed as a communicant recited lewd verse. The exhibit was closed on the charges of fraud (advertising it as art, which the perpetrators dismissed, commenting that it was advertised as Dada, which has nothing to do with art, and that it wasn't their fault if the public thought it did) and obscenity (based on Durer's engraving of Adam and Eve, which had been incorporated into one of Ernst's sculptures). It was subsequently reopened. According to the Hamlyn, the event was intended to embarrass and provoke the public (note, page 8). This element of drama and provocation is a thread that runs through V for Vendetta as well.

    Click to view a larger image of the painting.

    9, 1, 1 The fifth of the eleventh...

    This is the first reference to Guy Fawkes day, the anniversary of the day when Guy Fawkes was caught in the basement of Parliament with a large amount of explosives. Fawkes was a Catholic extremist and a military hero who distinguished himself as a courageous and coolly determined soldier through his exploits fighting with the Spanish army in the Netherlands (Encyclopaedia Britannica 705). He was recruited by disgruntled Catholics who plotted to blow up Parliament and kill King James I. James had worked to institute a fine for people who refused to attend Anglican services (Encyclopaedia Britannica 571), adding to the oppression Catholics already suffered in England. One of the conspirators rented a house which shared part of it's cellar with Parliament, and the group filled the basement with gunpowder. Fawkes was chosen to start the fire, and was supposed to escape in the fifteen minutes before the explosion; if he could not escape, "he was quite ready to die in so holy a cause," (Williams 479). One of the conspirators had a friend in Parliament; he warned the friend not to attend the opening on the day chosen for the plot, and the paranoid King James immediately ferreted out the plot. Fawkes was caught in the basement with the match, and was tortured. He was executed directly across from Parliament on January 31, 1606.

    9, 3, 2 Utopia (book on shelf)

    Utopia was Sir Thomas More's famous work of 1516 (Sargent 844), in which he outlined the "humane features of a decent, planned society," (Greer 307) a society of common property, liberality, equality, and tolerance (Greer 456).

    9, 3, 2 Uncle Tom's Cabin (book on shelf)

    Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and published in 1852, this novel about the depressing life-styles of black slaves in the American South contributed greatly to popular anti-slavery sentiment (Foster 756-66).

    9, 3, 2 Capital (book on shelf)

    Capital was Karl Marx's magnum opus of 1867. It was his major treatise on politics, economy, humanity, society, and government; Tucker describes it as "the fullest expression of [Marx's] entire world-view," (x).

    9, 3, 2 Mein Kampf (book on shelf)

    Nazi Leader Adolf Hitler's biographical proclamation of his beliefs, Mein Kampf, or "My Struggle," was written during his imprisonment following his first attempted coup against the Bavarian government in 1923 (Greer 512). Moore no doubt intended the irony of placing this work next to Marx's, as the ultra-right wing Nazi's were strong opponents of communism.

    9, 3, 2 Murders in the Rue Morgue (movie poster)

    This was a 1932 horror film made for Universal. It was a substantial rewrite of the Edgar Allen Poe story, and starred Bela Lugosi, a famous horror star. It is about a series of terrible murders that turn out to be the work of a trained ape (Halliwell 678). This reference may contain some foreshadowing as to V's methods of disguising his attacks on the system, and his serial killer traits.

    The movie was originally made in 1914, and remade twice, once in 1932 and again in 1971.

    9, 3, 2 Road to Morocco (movie poster)

    The 1942 Paramount film Road to Morocco was one of a series of light romantic comedies starring Bing Crosby and Bob Hope as two rich playboys who travel around the world having zany adventures (Halliwell 825).

    9, 3, 2 Son of Frankenstein (movie poster)

    The 1939 Universal horror film, Son of Frankenstein, was the last of the classic trio. It starred Boris Karloff, a famous horror-film actor, and involved the return of the Baron's son and his subsequent dabbling (Halliwell 906).

    9, 3, 2 White Heat (movie poster)

    White Heat, made in 1949 for Warner, starred James Cagney. It plot involved a "violent, mother-fixated gangster" who finally falls after a government agent infiltrates his gang (Halliwell 1073). This may be another important foreshadow, as V, too, brings down the violent and dysfunctional party leader by infiltrating his ranks.

    Addendum - a 1934 drama by the same name appears to be unrelated, pending further investigation.

    10, 3, 3 ...make Britain great again.

    This is typically "nationalistic" sentiment. European nationalism, which traces its root to the Hundred Year's War (Greer 269-275), is the concept that each nation has a single common culture and history which, inevitably, is considered by that nation to be better than any other's. It was this sentiment, taken to its extremes, that drove Hitler's Nationalist Socialist (Nazi) Workers' Party to try to rid Germany of "non-Germans." (Wolfgang 246-249).

    11, 3, 3 The Multiplying villainies of nature do swarm upon him...

    This is a line spoken by the Sargeant in Act I, scene II, from Shakespeare's MacBeth (766).

    14, 1, 1-2 "Remember, remember...the fifth of November, the Gunpowder treason and plot. I know of no reason why the Gunpowder treason ever should be forgot."

    This is one version of a English children's rhyme. In searching for a corroborating poem, I searched through The Subject Index to Poetry for Children and Young People, 1957-1975, which listed five collections of poems which included verses about Guy Fawkes (Smith and Andrews 267). One of these, Lavender's Blue, included the following version from at least 1956:

    Please to remember the fifth of November
    Gunpowder, treason and plot
    I see no reason why gunpowder treason
    Should ever be forgot (Lines 161).
    The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations attributes this version to an anonymous broadsheet song from 1826 (Cubberlege 368), and the first two lines as being "traditional since 17th century," (Cubberlege 9).

    14, 1, 2 Parliament blows up...

    In this scene, V has succeeded in doing what Fawkes failed; his and Evey's position opposite Parliament is probably significant, as it was opposite Parliament that Fawkes was hanged (Encyclopaedia Britannica 705).

    14, 2, 2 The fireworks form the shape of a "V"

    This refers to the common practice of exploding fireworks on Guy Fawkes day as part of the celebration (Encyclopaedia Britannica, p.705). It is likely also a reference to "'Repent, Harlequin!' Said the Ticktockman" by Harlan Ellison (see discussion, below).

    15, 3, 1 England Prevails

    This sentiment sounds a lot like the thrust in a verse from James Thomson's 1740 play, Alfred: a Masque (Act III, last scene):

    When Britain first, at heaven's command, Arose from out the azure main,
    This was the charter of the land, And guardian angels sung this strain:
    "Rule Britannia, rule the waves; Britons never will be slaves." (Cubberlege 545).

    18, -, - Paintings (images)

    I have been unable to determine the artists or titles of the paintings on this page.

    18, 2, 3 Frankenstein (book on shelf)

    This is a famous science fiction/social commentary of 1818 by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. Its "timeless theme" is that "of man creating what is beyond his power to control," (Ewbanks 5).

    18, 2, 3 Gulliver's Travels (book on shelf)

    This was a utopia novel written in 1726 by Jonathon Swift, an English social satirist who lived most of his life in Ireland (Adler ix-x).

    18, 2, 3 Decline and Fall of ...? (book on shelf)

    This work is probably meant to be Edward Gibbs' The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, more commonly known simply as The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. The six volume set was written between 1776 and 1788, and is considered on of the best histories ever written (Rexroth 596).

    18, 2, 3 Essays of Elia Lamb (book on shelf)

    Elia, or Charles, Lamb first published his famous essays in the pages of London Magazine from 1820 to 1825, then collected into two volumes, published in 1923 and 1833. His essays are considered to be personal, sensitive, and rich (Altick 686-87).

    18, 2, 3 Don Quixote (book on shelf)

    This was a satiric novel about chivalry, written around 1600 (Adler ?) by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes. Its hero was a caricatured romantic knight who is hopelessly idealistic (Greer 307).

    18, 2, 3 Hard Times (book on shelf)

    Charles Dickens wrote this "single-minded attack on... industrialism" in 1854. It juxtaposes the serious and studious industrialists with a creative, fun circus that comes to the town in which the novel is set (Ewbanks 786). It probably would have appealed to V's sense of drama and its victory over the drab.

    18, 2, 3 French Revolution (book on shelf)

    This volume could be any history of the French Revolution, which was fought between 1787 and 1792.

    18, 2, 3 Faust (book on shelf)

    Goethe's famous poem, Faust, was published beginning in 1808. It retold a Renaissance legend about a doctor who bargains with the devil for youth and power. The second part, published posthumously, was a philosophical treatise in which Faust's soul is saved because he loves and serves both God and humanity, despite his errors. This Faust is considered to embody the "modern" human (Greer 426).

    18, 2, 3 Arabian Nights Entertainment (book on shelf)

    This book is a collection of folk stories originally from India, but which traveled through Persia and into Arabia. Although set in 8th-9th century Baghdad, they retain many more characteristics of 15th century Egypt, where they were formally transcribed (Wickens 164).

    18, 2, 3 The Odyssey (book on shelf)

    One of two epic Greek historical poems set around 800 B.C. and composed by Homer. Although Homer's identity is uncertain, and he may even be an archetypical character himself, his Odyssey is an adventurous story about the return of Greek was heroes across rough seas (Greer 66).

    18, 2, 3 V (book on shelf)

    Thomas Pynchon's 1963 novel, V, is considered an important early "post-modern" work. It combined "bits of history, science, philosophy, and pop psychology," with paranoid characters and scientific metaphors. Pynchon's work is described as modulating "between the realms of 'high culture' and the pop underground of drugs and media culture," (Kadrey and McCaffery 19). This may be said of the Shadow Gallery, and of V for Vendetta as a work, as well.

    18, 2, 3 Doctor No (book on shelf)

    Ian Fleming, a former British intelligence agent, wrote this espionage novel in 1958. Fleming's novels were supposedly based on his real-life experiences as a spy (Reilly 320).

    18, 2, 3 To Russia With Love (book on shelf)

    Another of Fleming's novels, this one was written in 1957 (Reilly 320).

    18, 2, 3 Illiad (book on shelf)

    Another poem by Homer, the Illiad dealt with the violent, bloody Trojan War.

    18, 2, 3 Shakespeare (2 volumes) (book on shelf)

    Shakespeare was an Elizabethan playwright whose dramas and sonnets are considered classic humanist Renaissance works (Greer 307).

    18, 2, 3 Ivanhoe (book on shelf)

    One of Sir Walter Scott's dramatic and romantic historical novel, Ivanhoe was written in 1820 (Greer 425).

    18, 2, 3 The Golden Bough (book on shelf)

    James G. Frazer's exhaustive 13 vol. work on primitive superstitions was first published in 1890. V's book shelf contains a single volume from the work.

    18, 2, 3 Divine Comedy (book on shelf)

    This was a masterpiece of Italian literature by Dante Alighieri. Begun around 1306 and finished by Dante's death in 1321, it deals with the author's trip through the afterlife.

    18, 3, 3 Martha and the Vandellas

    A Rhythm-and-Blues musical group, produced and distributed by the Motown record label between 1963 and 1972. They got their start as back-up singers for Marvin Gaye, another Motown star, and then launched a successful career as aggressive and flamboyant performers. The song, "Dancing in the Streets," was released in 1964. (Sadie 178).

    18, 3, 3 Motown

    Motown was an independent, African-American-owned record label based in Detroit, Michigan (Motortown). The word also describes the distinguishing pop-soul style of music that brought success to the label. This "Motown sound" drew on the blues, rhythm-and-blues, gospel, and rock, but unlike other African-American musical styles, it also relied on some of the practices of accepted Anglo-American popular music, and it muted some of the "more vigorous characteristics of Afro- American music and performance practices," (Sadie 283).

    19, 1, 2 Tamla, Trojan

    I was unable to determine the reference to "Tamla" and "Trojan." Because "Motown" refers to both the aforementioned record company, and to the style of music it helped to popular, I do not know what relation "Tamla" had to the other groups mentioned. As the other individuals mentioned are real, I believe "Tamla" and "Trojan" existed, but I could find no record of them.

    Addendum - Tamla and Trojan were subsidiaries of Motown. (Fiona Martin, personal email, July 17, 1999)

    Addendum - reader Philip Eagle noted: "Tamla" is an alternative brand name sometimes used by the Motown organisation. It was actually the original name of the record label set up by Berry Gordy in 1958. "Motown" was added in 1960. "Trojan" is a well-known Jamaican label associated with reggae music, especially in the 1970s. (Eagle, personal email, April 9, 2003)

    19, 1, 2 Billie Holiday

    A famous jazz singer, Billy Holiday was extremely popular with the politically left-wing white intellectuals in New York. She recorded with some of the jazz's greats, including Benny Goodman and Count Basie. She descended into a world of drugs, alcohol, and abuse, and died in 1959, at the age of 44 (Sadie 409-410).

    19, 1, 2 Black Uhuru

    This group was one of the most famous reggae bands from Jamaica. They were formed in 1974 in Kingston (Sadie 46-47). Reggae is a distinctive Jamaican dance music, influenced both by Afro-Carribean music and by American Rhythm-and-Blues (Sadie 464).

    19, 1, 2 ...his Master's Voice...

    RCA's motto pictured a dog staring into the bell of a gramophone, an early phonograph record player.

    19, 3, 3 Aden

    Aden was both another name for the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen (South Yemen) and the country's capitol city. The country, which is now merged with North Yemen, occupied the Southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, south of Saudi Arabia. The British colonized it, and maintained partial rule there until the country became a Marxist republic in 1967 (Encyclopaedia Britannica 835). Although Prothero's age is not given, he appears to be around 50; it is likely that he was a soldier serving immediately before Yemen's revolution. Thus, he would have been a young man during the 1967 revolution, and around 40 during his years as a commander at the Larkhill Resettlement camp mentioned later in the book.

    23, 3, 1 V in circle

    This symbol bears resemblance to Anarchy sign of A in circle, as well as Zorro's dramatic initial (Scholz 60).

    24, 1, 2 Violet Carson rose

    The Violet Carson is a hybrid rose introduced in 1963 (Coon 201) or 1964 (Modern Roses 7 432) by S. McGredy. It is a yellow-blend Floribunda rose, created by crossing the 'Mme Leon Cuny' with the 'Spartan.' It is described as salmon colored, with cream (Coon 201) or silver (Modern Roses 7 432) under the petals, and is a hardy and free-blooming bush. It does not seem to be a very common variety, listed in publications by serious rose societies but not in books aimed at the casual reader, so it is uncertain as to how Finch would recognize it immediately.

    Addendum - reader Alastair Alexander shed some additional light on the Violet Carson rose and its namesake: 'Violet Carson' was an actress in 'Coronation Street', a long-running UK soap opera set in Manchester. She played Ena Sharples, a down-to-earth, blunt, working-class woman who was one of the mainstays of the series for years. (Alexander, personal email, May 11, 1999)

    See,+Violet for a few details, or for more information.

    Carson was "actually in several 'staples' of BBC England - Woman's Hour, Children's Hour, and Have A Go," according to Alexander, who also noted that "the rose is actually yellow, and not all that easy to find." (Alexander, personal email, May 11, 1999)

    Reader Graham Thomas added: The Violet Carson rose - more significant than the type of rose... is the person the rose was named after. Violet Carson was an actress who played the character Ena Sharples on the long running British soap opera 'Coronation Street'. I think she would have been in the show for about 20 years until she died. She was a household name in Britain - her working class character (a grumpy but well meaning busybody) made her a dearly loved icon. (Thomas, personal email, Jan 04, 1999)

    25, 1, 3 The Cat (movie poster)

    The poster for a film called The Cat hanging on the wall appears to depict a man holding a gun. The only film I could find with this title, however, was a 1973 French drama about the uncommunicative relationship between a bitter trapeze star and her husband (Halliwell 168).

    Addendum - reader Christian (no other name given) noted: There was also a 1966 television action adventure series called T.H.E. CAT starring Robert Loggia. Details are sketchy about what the premise might have been but it appears to be about a secret agent. (Christian, personal email, July 2, 1999)

    Addendum - V for Vendetta artist David Lloyd noted: T.H.E. Cat is the poster - from a great, moody TV show of the Sixties... (Lloyd, personal email, January 31, 2002)

    25, 1, 3 Klondike Annie (movie poster)

    A 1936 Paramount film, Klondike Annie starred Mae West as a "torch singer on the run" who, disguised as a missionary, revitalizes a mission in the Klondike (Halliwell 542). Some of the films depicted in the posters appear to have appealed to V for purely entertainment purposes. This one, however, may give the reader a clue about V's character. He is likewise on the run, disguised, and will try to revitalize the whole nation.

    25, 1, 3 Monkey Business (movie poster)

    This 1931 Marx brother's film made for Paramount featured the antics of four stowaways on a ship who crash an on-board society party, where they "catch a few crooks," (Halliwell 666). This is another clue, as V is a stowaway in the social system, crashes the system, and catches plenty of antagonists.

    25, 1, 3 Waikiki Wedding (movie poster)

    Waikiki Wedding was made in 1937 for Paramount. Its plot involves a press agent who is in Hawaii to promote a Pineapple Queen contest (Halliwell 1050).

    26, 3, 2 Save A Whale (t-shirt)

    Because of threatened extinction of whales, many people in the 1970's began to wear t-shirts and pins proclaiming that one should "save a whale." This sentiment has come to be associated with "liberal" politics and environmentalism.

    27, 1, 1 ...when Labour got into power...

    The British Labour Party is a reformist socialist party with strong institutional and financial ties to trade unions. In January 1981, due to vast internal changes, the Labor Party leader elected was Michael Foot, a militant socialist who's policies included "unilateral nuclear disarmament, nationalization of key industries, union power, and heavy taxation," (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 82), just as Moore described in "Behind the Painted Smile" (271)

    27, 1, 1 ...President Kennedy...

    The implication is that the President of the United States is either Ted Kennedy, a democratic senator and nephew to the former president John F. Kennedy, or John Kennedy, Jr, the former president's son.

    28, 2, 1 Norsefire

    This is probably the name of the state party, as flags and uniforms all display large N's. "Norse" derives from the Norsemen or Vikings of the Scandinavia countries who invaded Europe in the 5th and 6th (Greer 183). They were fierce, strong, and "aryan" -- the blonde, blue-eyed "ideal" population fetishized by Hitler's Nazi Party (Greer 513-514). The choice of this image helps to identify the government's politics.

    31, 2, 3 The Tupenny Rush

    Tuppenny is slang for a two-penny piece, or a tuppence (Partridge, Unconventional, 916). Most slang definitions of "rush" involve swindles or robbery, especially the extortion of money by quick talking, which does not allow the victim to think. Thus, the "tupenny rush" is likely a reference to such a swindle.

    31, 2, 3 The Penny Dreadful

    Coined in the Pall Mall Gazette in 1892, the phrase was used to describe any sensational tale; after 1910, it referred especially to cheap and sensational novels (Partridge, Historical, 679).

    31, 2, 3 All the world's a stage

    This is a quote from Shakespeare's play As You Like It, Act II, scene vii. (Bartlett 211).

    33, 3, 1 darkies

    The term "darkies" refers to any people of color. Its origin is American, circa 1775; it was anglicized by 1840 (Partridge, Unconventional, 208)

    33, 3, 1 Nancy boy

    "Nancy" was 19th and 20th century slang for effeminate men or "catamites," young boys kept for "unnatural purposes" (Partridge, Historical, 610), and refers here to homosexuals.

    33, 3, 1 Beatniks

    "Beatniks" were bohemian artists and poets who, during the 1940's and 1950's, romanticized the "negro" culture. As a rule, they listened to jazz music, wrote avant garde poetry, and held politically leftist (Marxist) opinions. The term was coined 1958, by San Francisco journalist Herb Caen (Alfonso 7), and was probably partially derived from the jazz term "beat," which refers to rhythm, with the Yiddish pejorative suffix "-nik" added on (Partridge, Unconventional, 1000). However, "beat generation" member Jack Keroac coined the root term, beat, in 1949; he insisted it came from the word "beatific," (Alfonso 7).

    41, 3, 3 "O Beauty, 'til now I never knew thee..."

    I have been unable to locate this quote in any standard book of quotations.

    Addendum - reader Steve Block noted: Probably a misquote, the til should be till and then it is from King Henry VIII act 1, scene 4, by Shakespeare. It is said by King Henry VIII when he takes the hand of Anne Bullen (Boleyn) for the first time. (Block, personal email, January 02, 2003)

    42, 2, 3 ...take five.

    The popular expression for taking a break comes from a show business phrase, although Union Laws now require ten minute breaks (Sergal 219).

    44, 1, 1 Painting (image)

    I have been unable to determine the title or artist of this work.

    Addendum - reader Steve Block noted: The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastia, by the brothers Piero and Antonio del Pollaiuolo. Saint Sebastian is the patron saint of soldiers and enemies of religion, among others. Interesting, considering that V is planning the murder of Bishop Lilliman. (Found by Paul Kelly) (Block, personal email, January 02, 2003)

    47, 2, 2 Mea Culpa

    This is latin for "I confess," or "the guilt is mine," (Jones 69).

    48, 2, - Bring me my bow of burning gold, Bring me my arrows of desire, Bring me My spear, O clouds unfold, Bring me my chariot of fire... I will not cease from mental flight Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand 'Till we have built Jerusalem In England's green and pleasant land.

    This is part of William Blake's poem, "And Did Those Feet," from the preface to his collection Milton. Blake's preface to this work was a call for Christians to condemn the classical writings of Homer, Ovid, Plato, and Cicero, and to instead revere the Bible. He declared "We do not want either Greek or Roman Models," in England; rather, he said, his fellow Christians should strive to create "those Worlds of Eternity in which we shall live for ever," (MacLagan and Russell xix). V is, in his way, trying to create his idea of Jerusalem, a free world, in England.

    54, 2, 2 "Please allow me to introduce myself. I'm a man of wealth and taste"

    These are the opening lines from "Sympathy for the Devil" by the rock group, the Rolling Stones, released in 1968.

    55, 3, 3 "I am the Devil, and I come to do the devil's work,"

    Finch describes this quote as coming from a famous murder case, nearly twenty years before 1997. A search through almanacs from the years 1974-1979 reveals that the only famous murder case in that time was that of Son of Sam/David Berkowitz. Berkowitz was convicted of killing six people and injuring another seven in random attacks on the streets of New York between July 29, 1976 and July 31, 1977. There were no apparent motives behind the killings; Berkowitz explained them by claiming, "It was a command. I had a sign and I followed it," (Delury, 1978, 942). Considering this quote, and Berkowitz's apparent insanity which caused him to disrupt his trial with violent outbursts, it is probable that this quote came from that case.

    Addendum - reader Philip Eagle noted: Allegedly the words with which a member of the Charles Manson gang introduced himself when arriving at Sharon Tate's home to murder the occupyers, according to later confessions.

    See for the closing argument of the prosecutor, Vincent Bugliosi at the Manson trial, which describes the confession. (Eagle, personal email, April 9, 2003)

    56, 2, 1-2 The Lord is my shepherd: therefore I can lack nothing; He shall feed me in green pasture and lead me forth beside the waters of comfort. He shall convert my soul and bring me forth in the paths of righteousness, for His name's sake...

    This seems to be a strange version of the 23rd Psalm from the biblical book of Psalms. It is nothing like the common King James standard version:

    The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. He maketh me lie down in green pastures; He leadeth me beside the still waters. He restoreth my soul: he leadeth me in the paths of righteousness for his name's sake. (Bartlett 18)

    I looked through several bibles and discovered that each had a different version. One fairly common version, from the standard Holy Bible (Catholic version) reads:

    The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not be in want. He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. (310)

    Another version had been rewritten into rhyming verse by Sir Phillip Sidney and his sister, the Countess of Pembroke. Still another example, from the Bay Balm Book, dated to 1640 and had been rendered very difficult to read. The Septuagint Bible, which is a translation from Greek of "the oldest version of the old testament," offered still another reading. There seems to be a different translation of the Bible for every sect and branch of Christianity not to mention numerous "plain" or "modern" English versions, and I was unable to determine the origin of this version.

    68, 3, 1 The Magic Faraway Tree by Enid Blayton

    Although many of the books in V for Vendetta are real, this one appears to be one of Moore's inventions. Neither The Oxford Companion to Children's Literature, nor the Science Fiction Encyclopedia included its title, and there appears to be no similarly named author.

    Addendum - I now know I was completely wrong - this is a real novel by Enid Blyton, a very famous British children's author. I'll try to give credit do everyone who told me about this, but there's no need to tell me again.

    Addendum - reader Philip Eagle noted: "The Magic Faraway Tree" is the title of one of a series of young children's adventure books by Enid Blyton, which deal with a tree whose top leads to various allegorical fantasy worlds. Among them is "The Land of Do-As-You-Please," subsequently referenced in "V". (Eagle, personal email, April 9, 2003)

    73, 1, 3 I heard of an experiment once...

    The experiment, which was not quite as dramatic as is described here, was conducted at Yale University in 1963 by Stanley Milgram. The volunteers did not actually believe they were killing the victims, and 65% (26 of 40 volunteers) continued to administer what they believed to be dangerous, severe shocks to their victim (Milgram 376).

    80, 2, 3 ...the Pituarin/Pinearin mixture...

    I could find no information on either substance.

    Addendum - reader Steve Block noted: Probably relating to the pituitary gland and the pineal gland (Block, personal email, January 02, 2003)

    Addendum - reader Philip Eagle noted: Pituitrin - hormone produced by the pituitary gland. Pinearin - hormone produced by the pineal gland. (Eagle, personal email, April 9, 2003)

    81, 3, 1 ...he's sorted out the whitefly and it looks like being a good yield.

    White flies, or Aleyrodidae, are a pest that cause problems with many food plants (Chittenden 72). Thus, V dealt with the whitefly problem.

    81, 3, 3 ammonia-based fertilizer

    Some fertilizers contain ammonia, which, in the presence of the correct bacteria, can be broken down into nitrates and used by plants (Chittenden 99).

    82, 1, 2 grease solvent

    I believe this is referring to a kind of pesticide which is contained in petroleum-based solvents (Sive C204).

    83, 2, 2 mustard gas

    This gas was created for chemical warfare purposes during WWI. It causes severe blistering and eye irritation. It's chemical structure is (ClCH2CH2)2S (b,b-dichloro-ethyl sulfide) (Encyclopedia Americana 679).

    83, 2, 3 napalm

    Napalm is a gasoline-based explosive derived during WWII (Encyclopedia Americana 724). I am not certain whether one could make either Napalm or mustard gas from gardening ingredients.

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